• Artha samgraha and Indus Script inscriptions  By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
Sindhu-Sarasvati Script inscriptions are metalwork catalogues which are data archives of contributions made by ancient metalworkers to creation of wealth (Artha samgraha) of the nation. The contributions are so impressive that an economic historian, Angus Maddison reports to OECD before the announcement of European Union, the contributions made by Ancient India (Ancient Bhāratam) to Global wealth in 1 Common Era….. Read More
  • Aryan Invasion Myth  By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
The opposing view, known variously as the Indigenous Aryans theory (IAT) and the Out of India theory (OIT), rejects the AIT/IAMT (henceforth AIT). It posits that the Indo-Aryan people and their languages originated in the Indian subcontinent and that the Indus valley civilization (Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization) was the Vedic civilization, not a Dravidian civilization as claimed in the AIT….. Read More
  • Harappa bricks in Raghopura Diara  By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
It is time to avoid jumping to conclusions about ‘collapse’ or ‘decline’ of civilization in ancient Bharat but to provide a narrative of a Hindu civilization which has made the nation the richest in the world, contributing to 33% of Global GDP in 1 CE. A hypothesis has also been posited that Bharatiya artisans and seafaring merchants were the key intermediaries who traversed along an Ancient Maritime Tin Route which linked Hanoi (Vietnam) and Haifa (Israel) across Eurasia, predating the Silk Road by two milllennia….. Read More
  • Sarasvati River (circa 3000 to 1500 B.C.)    By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
The river dried up in long stretches due to sand deposition (àndhi) and due to river piracy (Yamuna captured Sarasvati at PaontaSaheb and carried her to Prayag, Allahabad to join the Ganga; hence the myth of the sangamam of the three rivers, Sarasvati, Yamuna and Ganga). When the river was in full flow, it had borne the Himalayan glacier waters emanating from Har-ki-dun glacier (Bandarpunch massif) and of the waters of the Sutlej emanating from Mt. Kailas; thus the river had carried the present-day waters of the Sutlej, the Tons and the Yamuna….. Read More
  • Sarasvati River, Bharatiya civilization    By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
Out of 2,600 archaeological sites in North-west Bharat, 2,000 sites have been discovered on the banks of River Sarasvati making it the Sarasvati Civilization of circa 3300 to 1500 BCE. Major sites are: Rupanagar, Rakhigarhi, Banawali, Lakhmirwala (Bhatinda, Punjab), Kalibangan, Dholavira, Dwaraka, Lothal, Somnath….. Read More
  • Sarasvati, Vedic river and Hindu civilization    By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
The conference on Vedic River Sarasvati and Hindu Civilization (Delhi, Oct. 24 to 26, 2008) highlights the findings of scientists and researchers particularly during the last 60 years after India achieved Independence in 1947. These findings are based on a variety of disciplines: hydrology, meteorology, glaciology, seismology, sea-level changes, ice-age cycles, evolution of metallurgical and other technologies, architectural, agricultural and other cultural artefacts. These findings throw a new light on the civilization which is now rightly called Indus-Sarasvati civilization….. Read More
  • Sarasvati Civilization Volume 1    By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
The gods sowed at the Sarasvati_ barley mixed with honey over an amulet. Indra S’atakratu was the lord of the plough, the abundantly bestowing Maruts were the drivers. [Hillebrandt notes: “Here the stream is closely associated with the Maruts, and this is exactly the case in the R.gvedic verse (RV 7.96.2)…Pu_rus must have extended their territories upto the Yamuna_ and Parus.n.i_….. Read More
  • Sarasvati Rigveda Volume 2    By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
On the banks of River Sarasvati, R.gvedic people were engaged in processing soma. An entire book is devoted to this ‘early chemical’ or ‘alchemical’ process, elaborated through a series of complex metaphors….. Read More
  • Sarasvati River Volume 3    By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
Rigvedic India was an area in the Punjab, an area of the sapta-sindhu (which is called haptahindu in Vendidad, a handbook of the Parsee, the first of 16 holy ands created by Ahuramazda), bounded between the Sindhu and the Sarasvati, bounded on the north by the Himalaya. This is the same area where Harappan culture was nurtured….. Read More
  • Sarasvati Bharati Volume 4    By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
An evaluation of textual references on ‘five peoples’ and the enunciation of the nation as Bha_ratam Janam (the Bha_rata folk) in R.gveda1  and of archaeological/geological evidence on the River Basins of Sarasvati and Sindhu dated to periods earlier than and ca. 5500 years Before Present (BP). We will take a glimpse into the genealogy of the Pu_ru folk and the relative chronologies of other folk: Dasyu, Druhyu, Anu, Yadu, Turvas’a and the relative chronology of the Vedic Soma and Avestan Haoma traditions….. Read More
  • Sarasvati Technology Volume 5    By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
Sothi (Bikaner), on the banks of Sarasvati and Jalilpur, 78 km. SW of Harappa has yielded copper or bronze rods. Kalibangan (ca. 2900 B.C.), on the left bank of the Sarasvati river also recorded Sothi ware and copper bangles, an axe, a paras’u and over 100 copper artefacts. Pre-Harappan levels of Kalibangan have recorded only three copper objects: a curved blade (chopper), a celt and a bangle (Lal, B.B.,1979, Kalibangan and the Indus Civilization, in: Essays in Indian protohistory….. Read More
  • Sarasvati Language Volume-6    By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
Over 3000 epigraphs exemplifying the writing system of of the Indian (Sarasvati) civilization, ca. 5500 years Before Present, will be decoded using the lexemes, mainly of Bharatiya languages, based on the fundamental assumption that the language spoken by the people of the civilization continued in Bharat and evolved as a dialectical continuum from a linguistic area in the Sarasvati and Sindhu river basins and along the coastline of Sindhu sa_gara or Arabian sea….. Read More

  • Sarasvati Epigraphs Volume-7    By : Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
A zebu bull tied to a post: a bird above. Large painted storage jar discovered in burned rooms at Nausharo, ca. 2600 to 2500 BCE….. Read More